Section 2

1. Dramatic literature often                         the history of a culture in that it takes as its subject matter the important events that have shaped and guided the culture.


A.      confounds (Cause surprise or confusion in sb.)

B.      repudiates (refuse to accept)

C.      recapitulates (summarize and state again the main points of)

D.     anticipates (expect or predict)

E.      polarizes (divide or cause to divide into two sharply contrasting groups or sets of opinions or beliefs)



2. Since she believed him to be both candid and trustworthy, she refused to consider the possibility that his statement had been                          .

A.      irrelevant

B.      facetious (treating serious issues with deliberately inappropriate humor)

C.      mistaken

D.     critical

E.      insincere


3. Given how (i)                     the shortcomings of the standard economic model are in its portrayal of human behavior, the failure of many economists to respond to them is astonishing. They continue to fill the journals with yet more proofs of yet more (ii)                           theorems. Others, by contrast, accept the criticism as a challenge, seeking to expand the basic model to embrace a wider range of things people do.

 (i)    A.      overlooked      B.      occasional       C.      patent obvious, easily recognizable

 (ii)    A.      comprehensive       B.      improbable       C.      pervasive



4. There has been much hand-wringing about how unprepared American students are for college. Graff reverses this perspective, suggesting that colleges are unprepared for students. In his analysis, the university culture is largely (i)                       entering students because academic culture fails to make connections to the kinds of arguments and cultural references that students grasp. Understandably, many students view academic life as (ii)




A. primed for (make sth. ready for use or action; prepare sb. for a situation)

B. opaque to (not transparent; hard or impossible to understand)

C. essential for



A.      an arcane (understood by few)

B.      a laudable (of an action or idea or aim, deserving praise and commendation)

C.      a painstaking (done with or employing great care and thoroughness)


讲解:because 解释了空一的词意,取与fails to make connections to同义词B 空二取ritual的特质表达因为提到像ritual,那么取A

5. The narratives that vanquished peoples have created of their defeat have, according to Schivelbusch, fallen into several identifiable types. In one of these, the vanquished manage to (i)                    the victor’s triumph as the result of some spurious advantage, the victors being truly inferior where it counts. Often the winners (ii)                      this interpretation, worrying about the cultural or moral costs of their triumph and so giving some credence to the losers’ story.



A. construe (interpret in a particular way)

B. anoint (nominate or choose sb. as successor to or leading candidate for a position; smear or rub with oil)

C. acknowledge



A.      take issue with (disagree with)

B.      disregard

C.      collude in (come to a secret understanding; conspire; collaborate)


讲解:定位to 不定式后这个动作的褒贬与as the result of some spurious advantage有关,空一选择只有A,这是一个词汇搭配考点。 空二因为关键词提到因为担心代价所以愿意相信取同义表达C


6. The question of (i)                in photography has lately become nontrivial. Prices for vintage prints (those made by a photographer soon after he or she made the negative) so drastically (ii)                         in the 1990s that one of these photographs might fetch a hundred times as much as a non-vintage print of the same image. It was perhaps only a matter of time before someone took advantage of the (iii)                    to peddle newly created “vintage” prints for profit.




A. forgery

B. influence

C. style



A.      ballooned

B.      weakened

C.      varied



A.      discrepancy (difference; surprising lack of compatibility or similarity between two or more facts)

B.      ambiguity

C.      duplicity


讲解: 空一是定位关键词nontrivial和上下文的意思取A,因为单词风格不能搭配 严重,而影响无法与下文的内容合理连接。 空二的单词取关键词同义词A。空三关键词提出利用了什么的优势去倒卖。按上文提到的一个信息定位就是,有很大的价差。如果要利用,只能利用这个,所以,取同义词A

7. Even after numerous products made with artificial sweeteners became available, sugar consumption per capita continued to rise. Now manufacturers are introducing fat-free versions of various foods that they claim have the taste and texture of the traditional high-fat versions. Even if the manufacturers’ claim is true, given that the availability of sugar-free foods did not reduce sugar consumption, it is unlikely that the availability of these fat-free foods will reduce fat consumption. (削弱型逻辑题)

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A.    Several kinds of fat substitute are available to manufacturers, each of which gives a noticeably different taste and texture to products that contain it.

B.     The products made with artificial sweeteners did not taste like products made with sugar.

C.     The foods brought out in sugar-free versions did not generally have reduced levels of fat, but many of the fat-free versions about to be introduced are low in sugar.

D.    People who regularly consume products containing artificial sweeteners are more likely than others to consume fat-free foods.

E.      Not all foods containing fat can be produced in fat-free versions.



简单理解argument就是结论。本题的结论是Even if the manufacturers’ claim is true, given that the availability of sugar-free foods did not reduce sugar consumption, it is unlikely that the availability of these fat-free foods will reduce fat consumption.

从语法的规律来说主句是作者最强调的信息,因此,这句结论的核心在主句。那么题目要求削弱的对象就是主句的信息 it is unlikely that the availability of these fat-free foods will reduce fat consumption. 主句的逻辑是市场就是有fat-free foodsfat consumption也不会降低。根据题目要求选择一个选项使这个结论最大化不能成立。

其次,根据文章人不难发现这个结论是建立在一个类比上的,即是糖的consumption没有因为人造糖的出现而降低,因此推理出fat consumption 也不会因fat-free foods而降低。


Recent studies of sediment in the North Atlantic’deep waters reveal possible cyclical patterns in the history of Earth’s climate. The rock fragments in these sediments are too large to have been transported there by ocean currents, they must have reached their present locations by traveling in large icebergs that floated long distance from their point of origin before melting. Geologist Gerard Bond noticed that some of the sediment grains were stained with iron oxide, evidence that they originated in locales where glaciers had overrun outcrops of red sandstone. Bond’s detailed analysis of deep-water sediment cores showed changes in the mix of sediment sources over time: the proportion of these red-stained grains fluctuated back and forth from lows of 5 percent to highs of about 17 percent, and these fluctuations occurred in a nearly regular 1,500-year cycle.

Bond hypothesized that the alternation cycles might be evidence of changes in ocean-water circulation and therefore in Earth’s climate. He knew that the sources of the red-stained grains were generally closer to the North Pole than were the places yielding a high proportion of “clean” grains. At certain times, apparently, more icebergs from the Arctic Ocean in the far north were traveling south well into the North Atlantic before melting and shedding their sediment.

Ocean waters are constantly moving. And water temperature is both a cause and an effect of this movement. As water cools, it becomes denser and sinks to the ocean’s bottom. During some periods, the bottom layer of the world’s oceans comes from cold, dense water sinking in the far North Atlantic. This causes the warm surface waters of the Gulf Stream to be pulled northward. Bond realized that during such periods, the influx of these warm surface waters into northern regions could cause a large proportion of the icebergs that bear red grains to melt before traveling very far into the North Atlantic. But sometimes the ocean’s dynamic changes, and waters from the Gulf stream do not travel northward in this way. During these periods, surface waters in the North Atlantic would generally be colder, permitting icebergs bearing red-stained grains to travel farther south in the North Atlantic before melting and depositing their sediment.

The onset of the so-called Little Ice Age(1300-1860), which followed the Medieval Warm Period of the eighth through tenth centuries, may represent the most recent time that the ocean’s dynamic changed in this way. If ongoing climate-history studies support Bond’s hypothesis of 1,500-year cycles, scientists may establish a major natural rhythm in Earth’s temperatures that could then be extrapolated into the future. Because the midpoint of the Medieval Warm Period was about AD.850, an extension of Bond’s cycles would place the midpoint of the next warm interval in the twenty-fourth century.

8 According to the passage, which of the following is true of the rock fragments contained in the sediments studied by Bond?

A.    The majority of them are composed of red sandstone.

B.     They must have reached their present location over 1,500 years ago.

C.     They were carried by icebergs to their present location.

D.    Most of them were carried to their present location during a warm period in Earth’s climatic history.

E.     They are unlikely to have been carried to their present location during the Little Ice Age.


9 In the final paragraph of the passage, the author is concerned primarily with

A.    Answering a question about Earth’s climatic history

B.     Pointing out a potential flaw in Bond’s hypothesis

C.     Suggesting a new focus for the study of ocean sediments

D.    Tracing the general history of Earth’s climate

E.     Discussing possible implications of Bond’s hypothesis.


10 According to the passage, Bond hypothesized that which of the following circumstances would allow red-stained sediment grains to reach more southerly latitudes?

A.    Warm waters being pulled northward from the Gulf Stream

B.     Climatic conditions causing icebergs to melt relatively quickly

C.     Icebergs containing a higher proportion of iron oxide than usual

D.    The formation of more icebergs than usual in the far north

E.     the presence of cold surface waters in the North Atlantic


11 It can be inferred from the passage that in sediment cores from the North Atlantic’s deep waters, the portions that correspond to the Little Ice Age

A.    Differ very little in composition from the portions that correspond to the Medieval Warm Period.

B.     Fluctuate significantly in composition between the portions corresponding to the 1300s and the portions corresponding to the 1700s

C.     Would be likely to contain a proportion of red-stained grains closer to 17 percent than to 5 percent.

D.    Show a much higher proportion of red-stained grains in cores extracted from the far north of the North Atlantic than in cores extracted from further south.

E.     Were formed in part as a result of Gulf Stream waters having been pulled northward.

讲解:8 C, 9 E, 10 E, 11 C

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